Timeline of Colonial South Carolina
Sep 07 1804 - Feb 23 1865
Sep 07 1804
Hurricane of 1804 strikes.
Charlestonians build the first bridge over the Ashley River. It is large enough for two carriages to pass, and has sidewalks on each side for foot traffic.
Samuel F. Morse, inventor of the telegraph, arrives in Charleston to begin a printing business.
Population of Charleston to be 24,790 (United States Census).
The first native-born architect in America, Robert Mills, designs the first fireproof building in America (corner of Chalmers and Meeting Streets). A native Charlestonian, Mills also designed the First Baptist Church and the Washington Monument in the U.S. capital.
Jul 02 1822
Denmark Vesey and 5 of his associates hanged as the ring leaders in the attempted slave uprising "to overthrow the constituted civil authority." In all 34 hanged & 35 exiled.
The Medical Society of South Carolina establishes the Medical College
A group of members of Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim form the Reform Society of Israelites. Beth Elohim is the recognized birthplace of Reform Judaism in the United States.
Mar 14 1825
Geneeral Lafayette visits, welcomed with a grand procession.
Edgar Allen Poe arrives to serve at Fort Moultrie in November and stays for 13 months. During his stay he gathers material for a number of his works, the most popular being The Gold Bug which is set on Sullivan's Island and incorporates coastal Carolina pirate lore.
"The Best Friend," the first locomotive built in America and used in regular passenger service, becomes operational. It runs on the longest railroad in the world, 136 miles from Charleston to Hamburg, S.C., reaching speeds of 21 mph.
John James Audubon arrives in Charleston to work on his Birds of America.
Nov 28 1831
The steam locomotive "The Best Friend" transports the US Mail, becoming the first railroad in the country to do so.
Feb 14 1835
Fire! St. Philip's Church is destroyed and 60 residents are killed.
Jan 30 1838
Osceola, Chief of the Seminoles, dies while in prison at Ft. Moultrie.
May 03 1838
The first services held in the rebuilt St. Philips's Church at 146 Church St.
Fire destroys much of Ansonborough.
Mar 20 1843
The Citadel opens for its first class of cadets.
Nov 20 1846
The Citadel hold its first graduation ceremonies, six cadets receive diplomas.
Apr 25 1850
The funeral cortege of John C. Calhoun parades through the streets of Charleston to City Hall. The body lies in state until the next day. Thousands pay their respects to the "Great Nullifier."
Renowned scientist Dr. Louis Agassiz comes to Charleston to teach at the Medical College of S.C. A seaside laboratory is established on Sullivan's Island to study the flora and fauna of the Atlantic Ocean.
Sep 22 1858
Another yellow fever epidemic which lasts until November. Some 700 people die in this episode of the dreaded disease.
Charleston's population estimated to be 40,500.
Nov 07 1860
Abraham Lincoln's election prompts the resignation of federal officials in South Carolina.
Nov 15 1860
Major Robert Anderson takes command of Ft. Moultrie, his father had fought at Ft. Moultrie as a Patriot during the Revolution..
Dec 20 1860
Ordinance of Secession ratified in Institute Hall in Charleston, proclaiming South Carolina "an independent commonwealth."
Apr 12 1861
Confederate forces open fire upon Ft. Sumter, the first shots of the Civil War.
May 27 1861
General Beauregard relieved of his duties in Charleston & assigned to Virginia. Colonel Richard H. Anderson assumes command.
Oct 12 1861
Confederate envoys depart Charleston on an aid-seeking mission to England. The Union seizure of these envoys on the open sea from a British ship causes a crisis between the Union and Great Britain.
Nov 14 1861
The Beauregard Light Infantry receives a new white silk banner from the ladies of the city in ceremonies held at the race grounds.
Dec 19 1861
Federal forces sink stone-laden whale ships, "The Stone Fleet," in the main channel of the harbor to interrupt shipping, the beginning of the blockade of Charleston harbor.
May 13 1862
Confederate river pilot and slave Robert Smalls leads a small group that seizes the steamer Planter < http://www.beaufort-sc.com/history/smalls.htm> and sails it through Confederate line to the safety of the Union blockade of Charleston.
Jun 16 1862
The Battle of Secessionville rages at Battery Lamar on James Island. Confederates win this battle, inflicting some 700 casualties while suffering only 200.
Jun 21 1862
Battle of Simmons Bluff.
Jan 31 1863
Confederate ironclads Palmetto & Chicora engage the Federal fleet outside Charleston Harbor, bringing temporary relief from the blockade.
Apr 07 1863
Nine ironclads assault Fort Sumter. Results - Fort Sumter severely battered but still secured; 5 ironclads seriously disabled with the Keokuk sinking the next morning.
Jul 18 1863
The Union assault upon Battery Wagner on Morris Island is lead by the 54th Massachusetts, an all black unit.
Aug 22 1863
The 587 day Federal bombardment of downtown Charleston begins with the explosion of a shell on Pinckney Street.
Sep 08 1863
Union forces attempt an amphibious assault on Ft. Sumter. Confederate forces win this battle, inflicting 127 casualties while suffering none.
Nov 19 1863
Federal troops shell Charleston from Morris Island. One shell explodes at the door of St. Michael's Church during services.
Jan 18 1864
The 193rd day of the siege. The Union continues to shell the city. The past week alone brought over 1,000 shell hits.
The Confederate submarine CSS H. L. Hunley rams the Housatonic; the first submarine to sink a vessel in war.
Feb 23 1865
Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's troops reach Middleton Place Plantation, leaving it in ruins. Charlestonians fear imminent invasion, but Sherman's forces turn toward Columbia. The subsequent burning of Columbia destroys many records and valuables which Charlestonians had sent there for "safekeeping."
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